题目：Gender difference in leaders framed with authority or responsibility: an experimental study
摘要： Women are underrepresented at the highest levels of leading positions for internal and external reasons. This study examines gender differences in leadership emergence and leading behavior and efficiency when group leaders are entitled to punish group members in a public goods game. The experimental design includes two pairs of treatments: framing the leader task as authority or responsibility and selecting group leaders by willingness to lead or by voting. We find that while generally women are less willing and less voted to lead than men, female leaders act more effectively than male leaders in a responsibility-framed task: they contribute more to the public good, and are also more inclined to punish low contributors when they are voted as leaders. The framing effect shows different mechanisms between ways of leader selection particularly for women: in willing condition the responsibility framing promotes those who give high contributions as leaders but the authority framing does not, while in voting condition leaders in the responsibility framing contribute more than those in the authority framing after they are selected. Therefore, on occasions in which tasks emphasize responsibility, female leaders could enhance social welfare in the provision of public goods.
中国人民大学经济学院教授，在美国卡耐基梅隆大学获公共政策与管理博士学位。经济行为与组织实验室主任，英文期刊 Economic and Political Studies副主编。世界经济论坛（World Economic Forum）全球程序理事会第一届行为分会委员；中国行为与实验经济学论坛（ChinaBEEF）秘书长。主要研究兴趣包括行为和实验经济学，公共政策，收入分配，女性发展 、 消 费 行 为 。 研 究 成 果 曾 发 表 在 QuarterlyJournal of Economics, Journal of EconomicBehavior and Organization, Journal of EconomicPsychology, Journal of Comparative Economics,Journal of Development Studies 和《世界经济》《金融研究》 等学术刊物上，主持过多项国家自然科学基金项目。